abnormal bleeding

Abnormal Bleeding: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

abnormal bleeding

What is Abnormal Bleeding?


Abnormal bleeding is basically uterine bleeding that refers to any variation in the normal menstrual cycle. This term is broadly spread and includes various types of bleeding patterns, such as irregular bleeding, heavy periods, or bleeding between periods. If you want to seek medical help, you must understand the difference between normal and abnormal bleeding. 


In addition, normal bleeding of the menstrual period occurs in a specific or predictable pattern for about 21 to 35 days. If we analyze the moderate flow of menstruation, then the bleeding itself lasts for an average of 4 to 7 days. This flow of bleeding requires changing a pad every few hours. However, menstrual cycles can vary from woman to woman. 


What Causes Heavy Abnormal Bleeding?

abnormal bleeding causes


Menorrhagia is a medical name for heavy abnormal bleeding that can have several underlying causes. It is essential to keep in mind that heavy bleeding is relative, but not the same for every person. It can be heavier for one person and may be normal for another. Here are some of the potential causes that can be resulted in heavy abnormal bleeding:


Hormonal Imbalances – It specifically refers to the increase of estrogen relative to progesterone, which means it can upset the normal menstrual cycle. As a result, it leads to heavy bleeding. Conditions like PCOS or certain thyroid disorders can contribute to hormonal imbalances. 


Uterine Fibroids – It is a kind of noncancerous growth that develops in the uterus’ muscular walls. The cause is that they can vary in size and location which can cause heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle. It can also distort the uterine cavity. 


Presence of Endometrial Tissue – This tissue is present within the muscular walls of the uterus. It can cause enlargement of the uterus, resulting in heavy and painful periods. 


Growth Within Uterus Lining – The benign growth that develops within the uterus lining can lead to heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding. It specifically happens when they become disrupted. 


Excessive Thickening of Uterine Lining – Excessive thickening can occur due to hormonal imbalances. It includes an excess estrogen relative to progesterone as mentioned before. This term can lead to heavy menstrual bleeding. 


Blood Disorders – Certain blood disorders can also impair the normal clotting process which further results in heavy bleeding during menstruation. 


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease– PID is a kind of infection that affects women’s reproductive organs. It consists of the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. Inflammation and scarring can contribute to heavy or irregular menstrual bleeding. 


Certain Medications – If you have taken certain medications, such as anti-inflammatory drugs then it can lead to heavy bleeding. It can also interfere with the ability of the blood to clot in an accurate way. 


Intrauterine Devices (IUDs) – IUDs play a vital role in abnormal bleeding. Hormonal IUDs reduce menstrual bleeding in some women, whereas non-hormonal or copper IUDs can lead to heavier bleeding during periods. 


Cancerous Conditions – It happens very rarely, but in some cases, heavy or abnormal bleeding can depict the symptoms of uterine or cervical cancer or precancerous conditions. In such situations, women must require prompt medical attention for adequate diagnosis and treatment. 


However, it is suggested that you must consult a healthcare professional if you are experiencing heavy abnormal bleeding. The experts of Her Smart Choice, a women’s health center, assist you to determine the underlying causes and develop a tailored and appropriate treatment plan that suits your health condition. 


Symptoms Of Abnormal Bleeding


symptoms of abnormal bleeding


  • You will feel weakness and fatigue due to excessive bleeding during periods, passing large blood clots, and anemia symptoms. 
  • Unpredictable menstrual cycle lengths or durations, inconsistent bleeding patterns.
  • Postmenopausal refers to vaginal bleeding that occurs after menopause.
  • Bleeding between periods that occurs outside of regular menstrual cycles, also known as intermenstrual bleeding. 
  • Occurrence of bleeding during or after sexual intercourse.
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding depicts the blood in the stool, black or tarry stools. 
  • Abnormal bleeding from the nose, and gums, or minimal injury to other body parts. 


Treatments That Can Help


abnormal bleeding treatments


Heavy Menstrual Bleeding: The hormonal birth control and anti-inflammatory drugs help you in reducing bleeding and pain, tranexamic to promote blood clotting, removal of the uterine lining, and surgical interventions if there are any severe cases. 


Irregular Menstrual Cycles: The treatment of irregular menstrual cycles depends on the underlying cause. Hormonal contraceptives, including birth control pills, patches, and hormonal IUDs can regulate cycles and hormones. 


Postmenopausal Bleeding: In postmenstrual cases, women require an immediate evaluation that the HSC center provides with its same-day services. The thinning of vaginal tissues can also be a sign of endometrial cancer or other gynecological conditions. Further ultrasound, biopsy, and diagnostic tests may be recommended to determine the cause and treatment. 


Bleeding Between periods: Treatments are based on underlying causes, yet hormonal contraceptives may be prescribed to regulate menstrual cycles. If the cause is due to infections or abnormalities, such as antibiotics or surgical removal may be essential. 


Bleeding During Or After Sexual Intercourse: You must contact a healthcare professional if you’re facing postcoital bleeding. It can involve infections, cervical or vaginal abnormalities, or, in rare cases, cancer. Its treatment will depend on the cause and other surgical or medication treatments. 




The above-given passages provide you the general information on abnormal bleeding and its causes. The categorization of heavy abnormal bleeding is also helpful information that lets you know the situations in which you need to be aware or need consultation. It is important to note that abnormal bleeding can have some severe impacts, including cervical cancer. Whether it is light spotting or heavier bleeding, you must consult healthcare professionals. 


The experienced healthcare providers of Her Smart Choice offer a proper evaluation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment as per your health condition. Early detection and treatment help in managing abnormal bleeding and prevent potential complications. 

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